Thursday, September 2, 2021

Global framework on Biodiversity - Australian statement on the Convention on Biodiversity 2030 target


Australia's statement on the Convention on Biodiversity Plenary 24 Aug - Open-ended Working Group 3 on Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. The Conference of the Parties (COP15) for the Convention on Biodiversity is coming up early next year. I haven't seen any local news on this...

I'd like to highlight this part of the statement in particular:
"Australia welcomes a global target for the protection of 30 per cent of land and 30 per cent of sea by 2030. We support the focus in this target on areas important for biodiversity and through a combination of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures. Australia also recognises that Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) must be full partners in the implementation of this target."

You can read the draft global framework on Biodiversity to be put for adoption.

The draft framework includes 21 targets for 2030 that call for, among other things:

• At least 30% of land and sea areas global (especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and its contributions to people) conserved through effective, equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas (and other effective area-based conservation measures) 
• A 50% of greater reduction in the rate of introduction of invasive alien species, and controls or eradication of such species to eliminate or reduce their impacts 
• Reducing nutrients lost to the environment by at least half, and pesticides by at least two thirds, and eliminating the discharge of plastic waste 
• Nature-based contributions to global climate change mitigation efforts of least 10 GtCO2e per year, and that all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity 
• Redirecting, repurposing, reforming or eliminating incentives harmful for biodiversity, in a just and equitable way, reducing them by at least $US 500 billion per year 
• A $US 200 billion increase in international financial flows from all sources to developing countries.

The Four Goals for 2050:

The draft framework proposes four goals to achieve, by 2050, humanity “living in harmony with nature,” a vision adopted by the CBD’s 196 member parties in 2010.

Goal A: The integrity of all ecosystems is enhanced, with an increase of at least 15% in the area, connectivity and integrity of natural ecosystems, supporting healthy and resilient populations of all species, the rate of extinctions has been reduced at least tenfold, and the risk of species extinctions across all taxonomic and functional groups, is halved, and genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species is safeguarded, with at least 90% of genetic diversity within all species maintained.

Goal B: Nature’s contributions to people have been valued, maintained or enhanced through conservation and sustainable use supporting the global development agenda for the benefit of all;

Goal C: The benefits from the utilization of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably, with a substantial increase in both monetary and non-monetary benefits shared, including for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Goal D: The gap between available financial and other means of implementation, and those necessary to achieve the 2050 Vision, is closed.

Milestones to be reached by 2030

The four goals each have 2-3 broad milestones to be reached by 2030 (10 milestones in all):

Goal A:
Milestone A.1 Net gain in the area, connectivity and integrity of natural systems of at least 5%.
Milestone A.2 The increase in the extinction rate is halted or reversed, and the extinction risk is reduced by at least 10%, with a decrease in the proportion of species that are threatened, and the abundance and distribution of populations of species is enhanced or at least maintained.
Milestone A.3 Genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species is safeguarded, with an increase in the proportion of species that have at least 90% of their genetic diversity maintained.

Goal B:
Milestone B.1 Nature and its contributions to people are fully accounted and inform all relevant public and private decisions.
Milestone B.2 The long-term sustainability of all categories of nature’s contributions to people is ensured, with those currently in decline restored, contributing to each of the relevant Sustainable Development Goals.

Goal C:
Milestone C.1 The share of monetary benefits received by providers, including holders of traditional knowledge, has increased.
Milestone C.2 Non-monetary benefits, such as the participation of providers, including holders of traditional knowledge, in research and development, has increased.

Goal D:
Milestone D.1 Adequate financial resources to implement the framework are available and deployed, progressively closing the financing gap up to at least US $700 billion per year by 2030.
Milestone D.2 Adequate other means, including capacity-building and development, technical and scientific cooperation and technology transfer to implement the framework to 2030 are available and deployed.
Milestone D.3 Adequate financial and other resources for the period 2030 to 2040 are planned or committed by 2030.

21 “Action Targets” for 2030

The framework  lists 21 associated “action targets” for 2030:

Reducing threats to biodiversity
Target 1
Ensure that all land and sea areas globally are under integrated biodiversity-inclusive spatial planning addressing land- and sea-use change, retaining existing intact and wilderness areas.
Target 2
Ensure that at least 20 per cent of degraded freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems are under restoration, ensuring connectivity among them and focusing on priority ecosystems.
Target 3
Ensure that at least 30 per cent globally of land areas and of sea areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and its contributions to people, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
Target 4
Ensure active management actions to enable the recovery and conservation of species and the genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species, including through ex situ conservation, and effectively manage human-wildlife interactions to avoid or reduce human-wildlife conflict.
Target 5
Ensure that the harvesting, trade and use of wild species is sustainable, legal, and safe for human health.
Target 6
Manage pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, preventing, or reducing their rate of introduction and establishment by at least 50 per cent, and control or eradicate invasive alien species to eliminate or reduce their impacts, focusing on priority species and priority sites.
Target 7
Reduce pollution from all sources to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity and ecosystem functions and human health, including by reducing nutrients lost to the environment by at least half, and pesticides by at least two thirds and eliminating the discharge of plastic waste.
Target 8
Minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity, contribute to mitigation and adaptation through ecosystem-based approaches, contributing at least 10 GtCO2e per year to global mitigation efforts, and ensure that all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity.

Meeting people’s needs through sustainable use and benefit-sharing
Target 9
Ensure benefits, including nutrition, food security, medicines, and livelihoods for people especially for the most vulnerable through sustainable management of wild terrestrial, freshwater and marine species and protecting customary sustainable use by indigenous peoples and local communities.
Target 10
Ensure all areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, in particular through the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, increasing the productivity and resilience of these production systems.
Target 11
Maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to regulation of air quality, quality and quantity of water, and protection from hazards and extreme events for all people.
Target 12
Increase the area of, access to, and benefits from green and blue spaces, for human health and well-being in urban areas and other densely populated areas.
Target 13
Implement measures at global level and in all countries to facilitate access to genetic resources and to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, and as relevant, of associated traditional knowledge, including through mutually agreed terms and prior and informed consent.

Tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming
Target 14
Fully integrate biodiversity values into policies, regulations, planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies, accounts, and assessments of environmental impacts at all levels of government and across all sectors of the economy, ensuring that all activities and financial flows are aligned with biodiversity values.
Target 15
All businesses (public and private, large, medium and small) assess and report on their dependencies and impacts on biodiversity, from local to global, and progressively reduce negative impacts, by at least half and increase positive impacts, reducing biodiversity-related risks to businesses and moving towards the full sustainability of extraction and production practices, sourcing and supply chains, and use and disposal.
Target 16
Ensure that people are encouraged and enabled to make responsible choices and have access to relevant information and alternatives, taking into account cultural preferences, to reduce by at least half the waste and, where relevant the overconsumption, of food and other materials.
Target 17
Establish, strengthen capacity for, and implement measures in all countries to prevent, manage or control potential adverse impacts of biotechnology on biodiversity and human health, reducing the risk of these impacts.
Target 18
Redirect, repurpose, reform or eliminate incentives harmful for biodiversity, in a just and equitable way, reducing them by at least US$ 500 billion per year, including all of the most harmful subsidies, and ensure  that incentives, including public and private economic and regulatory incentives, are either positive or neutral for biodiversity.
Target 19
Increase financial resources from all sources to at least US$ 200 billion per year, including new, additional and effective financial resources, increasing by at least US$ 10 billion per year international financial flows to developing countries, leveraging private finance, and increasing domestic resource mobilization, taking into account national biodiversity finance planning, and strengthen capacity-building and technology transfer and scientific cooperation, to meet the needs for implementation, commensurate with the ambition of the goals and targets of the framework.
Target 20
Ensure that relevant knowledge, including the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities with their free, prior, and informed consent, guides decision-making for the effective management of biodiversity, enabling monitoring, and by promoting awareness, education and research.
Target 21
Ensure equitable and effective participation in decision-making related to biodiversity by indigenous peoples and local communities, and respect their rights over lands, territories and resources, as well as by women and girls, and youth.

Biodiversity PreCOP meeting livestreamed from Columbia 31 August 2021


At the Biodiversity PreCOP meeting livestreamed from Columbia on 31 August the UN Secretary General Antonio Guiterres highlighted that "Biodiversity is collapsing...one million species are at risk of extinction. Ecosystems are suffering....And when we degrade and destroy ecosystems around the world, we undermine their ability to absorb emissions and limit global heating to 1.5 degrees. The evidence is overwhelming."

He pointed out that "Humanity is waging a senseless and self-destructive war against nature. We must declare peace. This must be a priority for everyone, everywhere."

See below for his full statement.

Matthias Cormann, Secretary General of the OECD also made a statement to the Biodiversity PreCOP. He is formerly a Liberal Party politician who was part of the cabal that abolished carbon pricing in Australia).

Cormann stressed we must transform our relationship with nature as part of the post 2020 Framework agreement on biodiversity. He said that four elements are critical:
1. Biodiversity targets need to be quantitative.
2. Headline indicators important for reporting, transparency, accountability.
3. Scale up positive incentives, environmental subsidies.
4. Positive incentives should be included in headline indicators. Need to Scale up biodiversity finance and accelerate reform of subsidies harmful to biodiversity (including fossil fuel subsidies)

The Draft Global Framework on Biodiversity is set to be finalised and adopted at the UN Biodiversity Conference:
11-15 Oct 2021
UN Biodiversity Conference (COP15/COP-MOP10/COP-MOP4) - Part 1 (Virtual), including online high-level segment
25 Apr - 8 May 2022 UN Biodiversity Conference Part 2, meetings resume in-person to conclude negotiations, decide on new Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework and will also include a high-level segment



Statement: Intervention by Australia, 24/08/21 - Open ended workshop 3

Thank you Chair.
Australia would like to thank the Secretariat and the co-chairs for their work in developing the first draft of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework for consideration during this third meeting of the Open-Ended Working Group.
Australia welcomes the updated draft as an important step towards adopting a transformative and ambitious biodiversity agenda for the next decade. Overall, we think this draft is an improvement, but we believe there are opportunities to strengthen the framework so that it provides a basis for strong global action on biodiversity.
Australia supports greater representation of marine and coastal biodiversity throughout the framework, recognising the unique challenges facing our marine ecosystems. As an example, we see an opportunity for sustainable fisheries management to be explicitly addressed.
Australia welcomes a global target for the protection of 30 per cent of land and 30 per cent of sea by 2030. We support the focus in this target on areas important for biodiversity and through a combination of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures. Australia also recognises that Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) must be full partners in the implementation of this target.
As a megadiverse island nation Australia welcomes an ambitious target on managing invasive alien species. We note the importance of managing priority invasive species in areas of high biodiversity value, and would like to encourage cooperation from all Parties to commit to pre-border measures that prevent the transmission of species through trade and transport. Pre-border measures are far more cost-effective than managing the impacts of established invasive species.
We are pleased to see an emphasis on improving sustainable production and consumption, including through circular economy values. We see opportunities to strengthen the framework by ensuring language on waste and chemical management is clear, maintains a focus on minimising harmful impacts, and doesn’t create perverse outcomes.
Australia commends the co-chairs on steps taken to recognise the significant contributions from business and industry. We think however that there are opportunities for improvement to ensure the effective and equitable participation of women and girls, gender diverse people, and younger generations.
Australia commends the co-chairs on improving the recognition of IPLCs, and we see further opportunities to strengthen this in the framework. With 80% of the world’s remaining forest biodiversity under management by IPLCs, the draft 2030 milestones and 2050 goals cannot be achieved without the equitable participation of IPLCs. The unique contribution of traditional ecological knowledge, practices and innovations to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity needs to be recognised as a cross-cutting element of the framework.
Australia is looking forward to participating in the conversations during the course of this meeting, and in the lead up to COP15.
Thank you.

UN Secretary General statement to Biodiversity PreCOP 31 August 2021

You meet at a critical moment.

Biodiversity is collapsing -- and we are the losers.
As the president said, one million species are at risk of extinction. 

Ecosystems are suffering.

Oceans are overfished, choking with plastic waste and acidifying.

And, every year, we destroy 10 million hectares of forests. 

As people and livestock encroach further into wild habitats, we run the risk of unleashing terrifying new pandemics.

As we reduce the variety and abundance of life, we remove options for society – from medicines to foods to the crucial solutions we need to mitigate and adapt to climate disruption.

And when we degrade and destroy ecosystems around the world, we undermine their ability to absorb emissions and limit global heating to 1.5 degrees.

The evidence is overwhelming.

Humanity is waging a senseless and self-destructive war against nature.
We must declare peace.

This must be a priority for everyone, everywhere.

Friends, we can do this. 

We know the problems.

And we have the solutions -- international, national and local.

But, so far, our collective efforts have not been adequate.

Progress on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets was limited.

But we can learn lessons from our efforts so we can do better.

That is your task.

You are here to discuss and define a post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

This roadmap needs to be agreed at the UN Biodiversity Conference in Kunming, China, next year.

The world is counting on an ambitious agreement that engages all stakeholders and equips us with the tools to transform our relationship with nature.
 
The plan must fully reflect all the value of biodiversity and healthy ecosystems, including -- and especially -- their value to our economies.

Today we overfish, we cut down forests and destroy nature and it counts as positive economic growth when in fact it is a profligate waste of assets that is undermining our societies’ viability.
This is just plain wrong.

Above all, the new plan must be acted on.

We need to support agriculture and fisheries that do not overexploit and destroy the natural world.

We need ecosystems that help us adapt and build resilience to climate change.

Governments must shift the perverse subsidies that destroy healthy soils, pollute our water and empty the oceans of fish to those that incentivize actions to sustain nature.
Countries need to deliver more, larger and better managed conservation areas to safeguard species, functioning ecosystems and carbon stocks for this and future generations.
 
And we need to safeguard and empower the leadership of indigenous peoples and local communities whose lands encompass much of the world’s remaining biodiversity.

Above all, we need commitment, ambition and credibility.

Science has given us the tools.
Can diplomacy give us the wisdom to use them?

We need a post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework that will inspire action around the world by all – governments, businesses, and citizens.

We need everyone to act on the understanding that protecting nature will create a fairer, healthier and more sustainable world.

I am optimistic this can happen, especially when I see the awareness and commitment of the world’s young people.
And I applaud the commitments already made.

But, to succeed, we must be ambitious across the entire global biodiversity framework -- on its targets and on the means of implementation.

Only bold action on the ground can end the biodiversity crisis.

The future of humanity depends on our collective efforts.

So, today, I call on all countries to make strong, credible commitments and to take ambitious action. The world needs you to demonstrate leadership and political will.

Let us work together to sustain all life on Earth so people and nature may benefit.



References:

UN Secretary General statement to Biodiversity PreCOP 31 August 2021

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