Monday, November 23, 2015

Europe Diary: temperatures tumble in Paris after record warm November start

A spell of cold winter weather has finally arrived in Paris, just after we arrived from Nantes.

Maximum temperatures dropped this weekend to around 7C degrees and minimums are -1C overnight. In early November the temperature almost reached 30C in Paris during a European autumn heatwave setting a number of monthly maximum and minimum temperature records (see my storify below).

Many records in France were broken, sometimes very significantly (especially during the weekend of 7 and 8 November), and the warmth was also exceptional in its duration, according to a Meteo France media statement on 20 November.


The warm weather continued into a second week with records continuing to be broken.

"Sunday, November 15, with an often largely sunny weather, temperatures remained very high for the season in most parts of France. In Languedoc-Roussillon in particular, the softness was exceptional. One can even speak of heat with maximum temperatures that sometimes reached and exceeded 25 ° C. Nimes and Montpellier have experienced by far the most late 25 ° C since we are conducting surveys. ...." See Meteo France media statement.

The temperature anomalies were the greatest in upper mountain areas and 5° C in many cities of the northern half of the country, according to Meteo France. "Maximum temperatures regularly reached levels worthy of a late September or early October, the minimum sometimes full summer levels. In Bordeaux and Toulouse, there have already been eight days since the beginning of the month during which the temperature reached 20 ° C (previous records: 6 and 5 times respectively the full month). In NĂ®mes, 20° C was achieved 15 times (previous record: 9 times). It made more than 15° C 12 times in Strasbourg (old record: 9 times), 14 in Paris (old record: 12 times) and 11 in Lille (old record: 9 times)."


Eiffel Tower from Monmartre on a chilly sunny day

Paris and Europe finally chills


A cold front associated with a maritime polar air mass has now brought sustained rain over many areas of France on Friday and over the weekend of 21-22 November. Temperatures dropped significantly between Friday and Saturday.

Here is the graph for Paris of November temperatures to date and forecast to the end of the month compared to the Long term max and Min temperatures, sourced from Accuweather.com



Britain has also been hit by the cold snap, but have said such weather is not unusual for late November.

On the UK Met Office blog they said: "Although this will be the first widespread cold spell of the season, it is fairly typical for mid-late November and it’s not unusual to see snow to lower levels in the north of the UK in late autumn. In recent years the most notable snow event was in late November 2010 when there was lying snow across parts of northern and eastern Britain. This cold spell will be fairly short-lived with temperatures expected to return to more typical values for the time of year early next week with the weather remaining unsettled."

Crossing the One degree anomaly divide



NASA GISS temperature anomaly was 1.03C for October 2015

Meanwhile, UK Met Office data for 2015 so far shows that, for the first time, global mean temperature at the Earth's surface is set to reach 1 °C above pre-industrial levels, according to a media statement.

The HadCRUT dataset from January to September compiled jointly run by the Met Office and the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, shows 2015 global mean temperature at 1.02 °C (±0.11 °C) above pre-industrial levels.

Stephen Belcher, Director of the Met Office Hadley Centre, said: "We have seen a strong El Nino develop in the Tropical Pacific this year and that will have had some impact on this year's global temperature.

"We've had similar natural events in the past, yet this is the first time we're set to reach the 1 °C marker and it's clear that it is human influence driving our modern climate into uncharted territory. Early indications suggest 2016 will be similarly warm and while it's more difficult to say exactly what will happen in the years immediately after that, we expect warming to continue in the longer term."

Peter Stott, Head of Climate Monitoring and Attribution, said: "This year marks an important first but that doesn't necessarily mean every year from now on will be a degree or more above pre-industrial levels, as natural variability will still play a role in determining the temperature in any given year. As the world continues to warm in the coming decades, however, we will see more and more years passing the 1 degree marker - eventually it will become the norm."





The temperature anomaly was accentuated in Australia during October.

And the spring heat in Australia continues. The bushfires around Esperance and Perth have been particularly bad with at least 4 deaths reported.




Europe sets new temperature records for November